Get started with MicroCloud

MicroCloud is quick to set up. Once installed, you can start using MicroCloud in the same way as a regular LXD cluster.

If you are already familiar with LXD, you are good to go! Otherwise, see the LXD documentation to get started.

This tutorial guides you through installing MicroCloud in a confined environment and then starting some instances to see what you can do with MicroCloud. It uses virtual machines in LXD, so you don’t need any extra hardware to follow the tutorial.

Tip

In this tutorial, we use four virtual machines in LXD for the MicroCloud cluster members. You can use a different number of machines if you want, but the minimum number of required machines is three.

We limit each virtual machine to 2 GiB of RAM, which is less than the recommended hardware requirements. In the context of the tutorial, this amount of RAM is sufficient. However, in a production environment, make sure to use machines that fulfil the Hardware requirements.

1. Install and initialise LXD

Note

You can skip this step if you already have a LXD server installed and initialised. However, you should make sure that you have a storage pool set up that is big enough to store four virtual machines. We recommend a storage pool size of at least 40 GiB for that.

Complete the following steps to install and initialise LXD:

  1. Install snapd:

    1. Run snap version to find out if snap is installed on your system:

      user@host:~$ snap version
      snap    2.59.4snapd   2.59.4series  16ubuntu  22.04kernel  5.15.0-73-generic

      If you see a table of version numbers, snap is installed. If the version for snapd is 2.59 or later, you are all set and can continue with the next step of installing LXD.

    2. If the version for snapd is earlier than 2.59, or if the snap version command returns an error, run the following commands to install the latest version of snapd:

      sudo apt update
      sudo apt install snapd
      
  2. Enter the following command to install LXD:

    sudo snap install lxd
    
  3. Enter the following command to initialise LXD:

    lxd init
    

    Accept the default values except for the following questions:

    • Size in GiB of the new loop device (1GiB minimum)

      Enter 40GiB.

    • Would you like the LXD server to be available over the network? (yes/no)

      Enter yes.

2. Provide storage disks

MicroCloud supports both local and remote storage. For local storage, you need one disk per cluster member. For remote storage, you need at least three disks that are located on different cluster members.

In this tutorial, we’ll set up four cluster members, which means that we need a minimum of seven disks (four for local storage and three for remote storage).

Complete the following steps to create the required disks in a LXD storage pool:

  1. Create a ZFS storage pool called disks:

    lxc storage create disks zfs size=100GiB
    
  2. Configure the default volume size for the disks pool:

    lxc storage set disks volume.size 10GiB
    
  3. Create four disks to use for local storage:

    lxc storage volume create disks local1 --type block
    lxc storage volume create disks local2 --type block
    lxc storage volume create disks local3 --type block
    lxc storage volume create disks local4 --type block
    
  4. Create three disks to use for remote storage:

    lxc storage volume create disks remote1 --type block size=20GiB
    lxc storage volume create disks remote2 --type block size=20GiB
    lxc storage volume create disks remote3 --type block size=20GiB
    
  5. Check that the disks have been created correctly:

    root@micro1:~# lxc storage volume list disks
    +--------+---------+-------------+--------------+---------+|  TYPE  |  NAME   | DESCRIPTION | CONTENT-TYPE | USED BY |+--------+---------+-------------+--------------+---------+| custom | local1  |             | block        | 0       |+--------+---------+-------------+--------------+---------+| custom | local2  |             | block        | 0       |+--------+---------+-------------+--------------+---------+| custom | local3  |             | block        | 0       |+--------+---------+-------------+--------------+---------+| custom | local4  |             | block        | 0       |+--------+---------+-------------+--------------+---------+| custom | remote1 |             | block        | 0       |+--------+---------+-------------+--------------+---------+| custom | remote2 |             | block        | 0       |+--------+---------+-------------+--------------+---------+| custom | remote3 |             | block        | 0       |+--------+---------+-------------+--------------+---------+

3. Create a network

MicroCloud requires an uplink network that the cluster members can use for external connectivity. See Networking for more information.

Complete the following steps to set up this network:

  1. Create a bridge network without any parameters:

    lxc network create microbr0
    
  2. Enter the following commands to find out the assigned IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for the network and note them down:

    lxc network get microbr0 ipv4.address
    lxc network get microbr0 ipv6.address
    

4. Create and configure your VMs

Next, we’ll create the VMs that will serve as the MicroCloud cluster members.

Complete the following steps:

  1. Create the VMs, but don’t start them yet:

    lxc init ubuntu:22.04 micro1 --vm --config limits.cpu=2 --config limits.memory=2GiB
    lxc init ubuntu:22.04 micro2 --vm --config limits.cpu=2 --config limits.memory=2GiB
    lxc init ubuntu:22.04 micro3 --vm --config limits.cpu=2 --config limits.memory=2GiB
    lxc init ubuntu:22.04 micro4 --vm --config limits.cpu=2 --config limits.memory=2GiB
    

    Tip

    LXD downloads the image the first time you use it to initialise a VM. Therefore, the init command will take longer to complete on the first run. For subsequent runs, LXD uses the cached image.

    Therefore, you shouldn’t run these commands in parallel.

  2. Attach the disks to the VMs:

    lxc storage volume attach disks local1 micro1
    lxc storage volume attach disks local2 micro2
    lxc storage volume attach disks local3 micro3
    lxc storage volume attach disks local4 micro4
    lxc storage volume attach disks remote1 micro1
    lxc storage volume attach disks remote2 micro2
    lxc storage volume attach disks remote3 micro3
    
  3. Create and add network interfaces that use the dedicated MicroCloud network to each VM:

    lxc config device add micro1 eth1 nic network=microbr0 name=eth1
    lxc config device add micro2 eth1 nic network=microbr0 name=eth1
    lxc config device add micro3 eth1 nic network=microbr0 name=eth1
    lxc config device add micro4 eth1 nic network=microbr0 name=eth1
    
  4. Start the VMs:

    lxc start micro1
    lxc start micro2
    lxc start micro3
    lxc start micro4
    

5. Install MicroCloud on each VM

Before you can create the MicroCloud cluster, you must install the required snaps on each VM. In addition, you must configure the network interfaces so they can be used by MicroCloud.

Complete the following steps on each VM (micro1, micro2, micro3, and micro4):

  1. Access the shell in the VM. For example, for micro1:

    lxc exec micro1 -- bash
    

    Tip

    If you get an error message stating that the LXD VM agent is not currently running, the VM hasn’t fully started up yet. Wait a while and then try again. If the error persists, try restarting the VM (lxc restart micro1).

  2. Configure the network interface connected to microbr0 to not accept any IP addresses (because MicroCloud requires a network interface that doesn’t have an IP address assigned):

    echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/enp6s0/accept_ra
    

    Note

    enp6s0 is the name that the VM assigns to the network interface that we previously added as eth1.

  3. Bring the network interface up:

    ip link set enp6s0 up
    
  4. Install the required snaps:

    snap install microceph --channel=quincy/stable --cohort="+"
    snap install microovn --channel=22.03/stable --cohort="+"
    snap install microcloud --channel=latest/stable --cohort="+"
    

    Note

    The --cohort="+" flag in the command ensures that the same version of the snap is installed on all machines. See Keep cluster members in sync for more information.

  5. The LXD snap is already installed. Refresh it to the latest version:

    snap refresh lxd --channel=latest/stable --cohort="+"
    

6. Initialise MicroCloud

After installing all snaps on all VMs, you can initialise MicroCloud. This initialisation is done on one of the machines only. We use micro1, but you can choose another machine.

Complete the following steps:

  1. Access the shell in micro1:

    lxc exec micro1 -- bash
    
  2. Start the initialisation process:

    microcloud init
    

    Tip

    In this tutorial, we initialise MicroCloud interactively. Alternatively, you can use a preseed file for Non-interactive configuration.

  3. Answer the questions:

    1. As the address for MicroCloud’s internal traffic, select the listed IPv4 address.

    2. Select yes to limit the search for other MicroCloud servers to the local subnet.

    3. Select all listed servers (these should be micro2, micro3, and micro4).

    4. Select yes to set up local storage.

    5. Select the listed local disks (local1, local2, local3, and local4).

      Tip

      Type local to display only the local disks. The table is filtered by the characters that you type.

    6. You don’t need to wipe any disks (because we just created them).

    7. Select yes to set up distributed storage.

    8. Select yes to confirm that there are fewer disks available than machines.

    9. Select all listed disks (these should be remote1, remote2, and remote3).

    10. You don’t need to wipe any disks (because we just created them).

    11. Select yes to configure distributed networking.

    12. Select all listed network interfaces (these should be enp6s0 on the four different VMs).

    13. Specify the IPv4 address that you noted down for your microbr0 network as the IPv4 gateway.

    14. Specify an IPv4 address in the address range as the first IPv4 address. For example, if your IPv4 gateway is 192.0.2.1/24, the first address could be 192.0.2.100.

    15. Specify a higher IPv4 address in the range as the last IPv4 address. As we’re setting up four machines only, the range must contain a minimum of four addresses, but setting up a bigger range is more fail-safe. For example, if your IPv4 gateway is 192.0.2.1/24, the last address could be 192.0.2.254.

    16. Specify the IPv6 address that you noted down for your microbr0 network as the IPv6 gateway.

MicroCloud will now initialise the cluster. See About the initialisation process for more information.

See the full initialisation process here:

root@micro1:~# microcloud init
Select an address for MicroCloud's internal traffic:Space to select; enter to confirm; type to filter results.Up/down to move; right to select all; left to select none.       +----------------------+--------+       |       ADDRESS        | IFACE  |       +----------------------+--------+> [X]  | 203.0.113.169        | enp5s0 |  [ ]  | 2001:db8:d:100::169  | enp5s0 |       +----------------------+--------+ Using address "203.0.113.169" for MicroCloud Limit search for other MicroCloud servers to 203.0.113.169/24? (yes/no) [default=yes]: yesScanning for eligible servers ...Space to select; enter to confirm; type to filter results.Up/down to move; right to select all; left to select none.       +---------+--------+---------------+       |  NAME   | IFACE  |     ADDR      |       +---------+--------+---------------+> [x]  | micro3  | enp5s0 | 203.0.113.171 |  [x]  | micro2  | enp5s0 | 203.0.113.170 |  [x]  | micro4  | enp5s0 | 203.0.113.172 |       +---------+--------+---------------+ Selected "micro3" at "203.0.113.171" Selected "micro2" at "203.0.113.170" Selected "micro4" at "203.0.113.172" Would you like to set up local storage? (yes/no) [default=yes]: yesSelect exactly one disk from each cluster member:Space to select; enter to confirm; type to filter results.Up/down to move; right to select all; left to select none.       +----------+---------------+----------+------+------------------------------------------------------+       | LOCATION |     MODEL     | CAPACITY | TYPE |                         PATH                         |       +----------+---------------+----------+------+------------------------------------------------------+  [x]  | micro1   | QEMU HARDDISK | 10.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_local1  |  [ ]  | micro1   | QEMU HARDDISK | 20.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_remote1 |  [x]  | micro2   | QEMU HARDDISK | 10.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_local2  |  [ ]  | micro2   | QEMU HARDDISK | 20.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_remote2 |  [x]  | micro3   | QEMU HARDDISK | 10.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_local3  |  [ ]  | micro3   | QEMU HARDDISK | 20.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_remote3 |> [x]  | micro4   | QEMU HARDDISK | 10.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_local4  |       +----------+---------------+----------+------+------------------------------------------------------+ Select which disks to wipe:Space to select; enter to confirm; type to filter results.Up/down to move; right to select all; left to select none.       +----------+---------------+----------+------+------------------------------------------------------+       | LOCATION |     MODEL     | CAPACITY | TYPE |                         PATH                         |       +----------+---------------+----------+------+------------------------------------------------------+> [ ]  | micro1   | QEMU HARDDISK | 10.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_local1  |  [ ]  | micro2   | QEMU HARDDISK | 10.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_local2  |  [ ]  | micro3   | QEMU HARDDISK | 10.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_local3  |  [ ]  | micro4   | QEMU HARDDISK | 10.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_local4  |       +----------+---------------+----------+------+------------------------------------------------------+ Using "/dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_local3" on "micro3" for local storage pool Using "/dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_local4" on "micro4" for local storage pool Using "/dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_local1" on "micro1" for local storage pool Using "/dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_local2" on "micro2" for local storage pool Would you like to set up distributed storage? (yes/no) [default=yes]: yesUnable to find disks on some systems. Continue anyway? (yes/no) [default=yes]: yesSelect from the available unpartitioned disks:Space to select; enter to confirm; type to filter results.Up/down to move; right to select all; left to select none.       +----------+---------------+----------+------+------------------------------------------------------+       | LOCATION |     MODEL     | CAPACITY | TYPE |                         PATH                         |       +----------+---------------+----------+------+------------------------------------------------------+> [x]  | micro1   | QEMU HARDDISK | 20.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_remote1 |  [x]  | micro2   | QEMU HARDDISK | 20.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_remote2 |  [x]  | micro3   | QEMU HARDDISK | 20.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_remote3 |       +----------+---------------+----------+------+------------------------------------------------------+ Select which disks to wipe:Space to select; enter to confirm; type to filter results.Up/down to move; right to select all; left to select none.       +----------+---------------+----------+------+------------------------------------------------------+       | LOCATION |     MODEL     | CAPACITY | TYPE |                         PATH                         |       +----------+---------------+----------+------+------------------------------------------------------+> [ ]  | micro1   | QEMU HARDDISK | 20.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_remote1 |  [ ]  | micro2   | QEMU HARDDISK | 20.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_remote2 |  [ ]  | micro3   | QEMU HARDDISK | 20.00GiB | scsi | /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0QEMU_QEMU_HARDDISK_lxd_remote3 |       +----------+---------------+----------+------+------------------------------------------------------+ Using 1 disk(s) on "micro1" for remote storage pool Using 1 disk(s) on "micro2" for remote storage pool Using 1 disk(s) on "micro3" for remote storage pool Configure distributed networking? (yes/no) [default=yes]:  yesSelect an available interface per system to provide external connectivity for distributed network(s):Space to select; enter to confirm; type to filter results.Up/down to move; right to select all; left to select none.       +----------+--------+----------+       | LOCATION | IFACE  |   TYPE   |       +----------+--------+----------+> [x]  | micro2   | enp6s0 | physical |  [x]  | micro3   | enp6s0 | physical |  [x]  | micro1   | enp6s0 | physical |  [x]  | micro4   | enp6s0 | physical |       +----------+--------+----------+ Using "enp6s0" on "micro3" for OVN uplink Using "enp6s0" on "micro1" for OVN uplink Using "enp6s0" on "micro2" for OVN uplink Using "enp6s0" on "micro4" for OVN uplink Specify the IPv4 gateway (CIDR) on the uplink network (empty to skip IPv4): 192.0.2.1/24Specify the first IPv4 address in the range to use on the uplink network: 192.0.2.100Specify the last IPv4 address in the range to use on the uplink network: 192.0.2.254Specify the IPv6 gateway (CIDR) on the uplink network (empty to skip IPv6): 2001:db8:d:200::1/64 Initializing a new cluster Local MicroCloud is ready Local LXD is ready Local MicroOVN is ready Local MicroCeph is readyAwaiting cluster formation ... Peer "micro2" has joined the cluster Peer "micro3" has joined the cluster Peer "micro4" has joined the clusterCluster initialization is completeMicroCloud is ready

7. Inspect your MicroCloud setup

You can now inspect your cluster setup.

Tip

You can run these commands on any of the cluster members. We continue using micro1, but you will see the same results on the other VMs.

  1. Inspect the cluster setup:

    root@micro1:~# lxc cluster list
    +--------+----------------------------+------------------+--------------+----------------+-------------+--------+-------------------+|  NAME  |             URL            |      ROLES       | ARCHITECTURE | FAILURE DOMAIN | DESCRIPTION | STATE  |      MESSAGE      |+--------+----------------------------+------------------+--------------+----------------+-------------+--------+-------------------+| micro1 | https://203.0.113.169:8443 | database-leader  | x86_64       | default        |             | ONLINE | Fully operational ||        |                            | database         |              |                |             |        |                   |+--------+----------------------------+------------------+--------------+----------------+-------------+--------+-------------------+| micro2 | https://203.0.113.170:8443 | database         | x86_64       | default        |             | ONLINE | Fully operational |+--------+----------------------------+------------------+--------------+----------------+-------------+--------+-------------------+| micro3 | https://203.0.113.171:8443 | database         | x86_64       | default        |             | ONLINE | Fully operational |+--------+----------------------------+------------------+--------------+----------------+-------------+--------+-------------------+| micro4 | https://203.0.113.172:8443 | database-standby | x86_64       | default        |             | ONLINE | Fully operational |+--------+----------------------------+------------------+--------------+----------------+-------------+--------+-------------------+
    root@micro1:~# microcloud cluster list
    +--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+|  NAME  |       ADDRESS      | ROLE     |                           FINGERPRINT                            | STATUS |+--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+| micro1 | 203.0.113.169:9443 | voter    | 47a74cb2ed8b844544ce71f45e96acb2c8021d4c1ffc2f1f449cdbf2f6898fd8 | ONLINE |+--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+| micro2 | 203.0.113.170:9443 | voter    | 56bee3adbd5e1de2186dd22788baffd5e1358e408ec3d9b713ed930741a339f2 | ONLINE |+--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+| micro3 | 203.0.113.171:9443 | voter    | aabdd5f64d4c2796a50d6ce9d91939f248bfeb27195426158dff05d660f93f86 | ONLINE |+--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+| micro4 | 203.0.113.172:9443 | stand-by | 649ec21815135104f1faa5fca099daddf995f554119c6e34706a2b31681ad1d7 | ONLINE |+--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+
    root@micro1:~# microceph cluster list
    +--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+|  NAME  |       ADDRESS      | ROLE     |                           FINGERPRINT                            | STATUS |+--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+| micro1 | 203.0.113.169:7443 | voter    | a2b370cce1deb02437b583aa73be5e5c519aed75f02f4b98f6df150fd62c648a | ONLINE |+--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+| micro2 | 203.0.113.170:7443 | voter    | e37ea1acd14b984152cac4cb861cbe35ac438151233b9d0ee606c44c2e27d759 | ONLINE |+--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+| micro3 | 203.0.113.171:7443 | voter    | 152ccf372ecc93faffa8a6801cedd5eca49d977eea72e3f2239245cc22965399 | ONLINE |+--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+| micro4 | 203.0.113.172:7443 | stand-by | 9b75b396f6d59481b8c14221942d775cff4d27c5621b0b541eb5ba3245618093 | ONLINE |+--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+
    root@micro1:~# microovn cluster list
    +--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+|  NAME  |       ADDRESS      | ROLE     |                           FINGERPRINT                            | STATUS |+--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+| micro1 | 203.0.113.169:6443 | voter    | a552d316c159a50a4e11253c36a1cd25a3902bee50e24ed1e073ee7728be0410 | ONLINE |+--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+| micro2 | 203.0.113.170:6443 | voter    | 2c779eb10409576a33fa01a29cede39abea61f7cd6a07837c369858b515ed02a | ONLINE |+--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+| micro3 | 203.0.113.171:6443 | voter    | 7f76cddfdbbe3d768c343b1a5f402842565c25d0e4e3ebbc8514263fc14ea28b | ONLINE |+--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+| micro4 | 203.0.113.172:6443 | stand-by | 5d62b2a63dec514c45c07b24ff93e2bd83ad8b9af4ab774aad3d2ac51ee102d5 | ONLINE |+--------+--------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+
  2. Inspect the storage setup:

    root@micro1:~# lxc storage list
    +--------+--------+-----------------------------+---------+---------+|  NAME  | DRIVER |         DESCRIPTION         | USED BY |  STATE  |+--------+--------+-----------------------------+---------+---------+| local  | zfs    | Local storage on ZFS        | 8       | CREATED |+--------+--------+-----------------------------+---------+---------+| remote | ceph   | Distributed storage on Ceph | 1       | CREATED |+--------+--------+-----------------------------+---------+---------+
    root@micro1:~# lxc storage info local
    info:  description: Local storage on ZFS  driver: zfs  name: local  space used: 747.00KiB  total space: 9.20GiBused by:  volumes:  - backups (location "micro1")  - backups (location "micro2")  - backups (location "micro3")  - backups (location "micro4")  - images (location "micro1")  - images (location "micro2")  - images (location "micro3")  - images (location "micro4")
    root@micro1:~# lxc storage info remote
    info:  description: Distributed storage on Ceph  driver: ceph  name: remote  space used: 25.41KiB  total space: 29.67GiBused by:  profiles:  - default
  3. Inspect the network setup:

    root@micro1:~# lxc network list
    +---------+----------+---------+-----------------+--------------------------+-------------+---------+---------+|  NAME   |   TYPE   | MANAGED |      IPV4       |           IPV6           | DESCRIPTION | USED BY |  STATE  |+---------+----------+---------+-----------------+--------------------------+-------------+---------+---------+| UPLINK  | physical | YES     |                 |                          |             | 1       | CREATED |+---------+----------+---------+-----------------+--------------------------+-------------+---------+---------+| br-int  | bridge   | NO      |                 |                          |             | 0       |         |+---------+----------+---------+-----------------+--------------------------+-------------+---------+---------+| default | ovn      | YES     | 198.51.100.1/24 | 2001:db8:d960:91cf::1/64 |             | 1       | CREATED |+---------+----------+---------+-----------------+--------------------------+-------------+---------+---------+| enp5s0  | physical | NO      |                 |                          |             | 0       |         |+---------+----------+---------+-----------------+--------------------------+-------------+---------+---------+| enp6s0  | physical | NO      |                 |                          |             | 1       |         |+---------+----------+---------+-----------------+--------------------------+-------------+---------+---------+| lxdovn1 | bridge   | NO      |                 |                          |             | 0       |         |+---------+----------+---------+-----------------+--------------------------+-------------+---------+---------+
    root@micro1:~# lxc network show default
    config:  bridge.mtu: "1442"  ipv4.address: 198.51.100.1/24  ipv4.nat: "true"  ipv6.address: 2001:db8:d960:91cf::1/64  ipv6.nat: "true"  network: UPLINK  volatile.network.ipv4.address: 192.0.2.100  volatile.network.ipv6.address: 2001:db8:e647:610d:216:3eff:fe96:ed5cdescription: ""name: defaulttype: ovnused_by:- /1.0/profiles/defaultmanaged: truestatus: Createdlocations:- micro1- micro3- micro2- micro4
  4. Make sure that you can ping the virtual router within OVN. You can find the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses of the virtual router under volatile.network.ipv4.address and volatile.network.ipv6.address, respectively, in the output of lxc network show default.

    root@micro1:~# ping 192.0.2.100
    PING 192.0.2.100 (192.0.2.100) 56(84) bytes of data.64 bytes from 192.0.2.100: icmp_seq=1 ttl=253 time=2.05 ms64 bytes from 192.0.2.100: icmp_seq=2 ttl=253 time=2.01 ms64 bytes from 192.0.2.100: icmp_seq=3 ttl=253 time=1.78 ms^C--- 192.0.2.100 ping statistics ---4 packets transmitted, 3 received, 25% packet loss, time 3005msrtt min/avg/max/mdev = 1.777/1.945/2.052/0.120 ms
    root@micro1:~# ping6 -n 2001:db8:e647:610d:216:3eff:fe96:ed5c
    PING 2001:db8:e647:610d:216:3eff:fe96:ed5c(2001:db8:e647:610d:216:3eff:fe96:ed5c) 56 data bytes64 bytes from 2001:db8:e647:610d:216:3eff:fe96:ed5c: icmp_seq=1 ttl=253 time=1.61 ms64 bytes from 2001:db8:e647:610d:216:3eff:fe96:ed5c: icmp_seq=2 ttl=253 time=1.99 ms64 bytes from 2001:db8:e647:610d:216:3eff:fe96:ed5c: icmp_seq=3 ttl=253 time=15.7 ms^C--- 2001:db8:e647:610d:216:3eff:fe96:ed5c ping statistics ---3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2004msrtt min/avg/max/mdev = 1.606/6.432/15.704/6.558 ms
  5. Inspect the default profile:

    root@micro1:~# lxc profile show default
    config: {}description: ""devices:  eth0:    name: eth0    network: default    type: nic  root:    path: /    pool: remote    type: diskname: defaultused_by: []

8. Launch some instances

Now that your MicroCloud cluster is ready to use, let’s launch a few instances:

  1. Launch an Ubuntu container with the default settings:

    lxc launch ubuntu:22.04 u1
    
  2. Launch another Ubuntu container, but use the local storage instead of the remote storage that is the default:

    lxc launch ubuntu:22.04 u2 --storage local
    
  3. Launch an Ubuntu VM:

    lxc launch ubuntu:22.04 u3 --vm
    
  4. Check the list of instances. You will see that the instances are running on different cluster members.

    root@micro1:~# lxc list
    +------+---------+---------------------+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+----------+| NAME |  STATE  |        IPV4         |                     IPV6                     |      TYPE       | SNAPSHOTS | LOCATION |+------+---------+---------------------+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+----------+| u1   | RUNNING | 198.51.100.2 (eth0) | 2001:db8:d960:91cf:216:3eff:fe4e:9642 (eth0) | CONTAINER       | 0         | micro1   |+------+---------+---------------------+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+----------+| u2   | RUNNING | 198.51.100.3 (eth0) | 2001:db8:d960:91cf:216:3eff:fe79:6765 (eth0) | CONTAINER       | 0         | micro3   |+------+---------+---------------------+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+----------+| u3   | RUNNING | 198.51.100.4 (eth0) | 2001:db8:d960:91cf:216:3eff:fe66:f24b (eth0) | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         | micro2   |+------+---------+---------------------+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+----------+
  5. Check the storage. You will see that the instance volumes are located on the specified storage pools.

    root@micro1:~# lxc storage volume list remote
    +-----------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+|      TYPE       |                               NAME                               | DESCRIPTION | CONTENT-TYPE | USED BY | LOCATION |+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+| container       | u1                                                               |             | filesystem   | 1       |          |+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+| image           | 17fbc145125c659b7ef926b2de5e5304370083e28846f084a0d514c7a96777bc |             | block        | 1       |          |+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+| image           | 45613e262f8a5fc9467330f679862147c289516f045e3edc313e07ebcb0aab4a |             | filesystem   | 1       |          |+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+| virtual-machine | u3                                                               |             | block        | 1       |          |+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+
    root@micro1:~# lxc storage volume list local
    +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+|   TYPE    |                               NAME                               | DESCRIPTION | CONTENT-TYPE | USED BY | LOCATION |+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+| container | u2                                                               |             | filesystem   | 1       | micro3   |+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+| custom    | backups                                                          |             | filesystem   | 1       | micro2   |+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+| custom    | backups                                                          |             | filesystem   | 1       | micro3   |+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+| custom    | backups                                                          |             | filesystem   | 1       | micro4   |+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+| custom    | backups                                                          |             | filesystem   | 1       | micro1   |+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+| custom    | images                                                           |             | filesystem   | 1       | micro2   |+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+| custom    | images                                                           |             | filesystem   | 1       | micro3   |+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+| custom    | images                                                           |             | filesystem   | 1       | micro4   |+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+| custom    | images                                                           |             | filesystem   | 1       | micro1   |+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+| image     | 45613e262f8a5fc9467330f679862147c289516f045e3edc313e07ebcb0aab4a |             | filesystem   | 1       | micro3   |+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------+

9. Inspect your networking

The instances that you have launched are all on the same subnet. You can, however, create a different network to isolate some instances from others.

  1. Check the list of instances that are running:

    root@micro1:~# lxc list
    +------+---------+---------------------+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+----------+| NAME |  STATE  |        IPV4         |                    IPV6                      |      TYPE       | SNAPSHOTS | LOCATION |+------+---------+---------------------+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+----------+| u1   | RUNNING | 198.51.100.2 (eth0) | 2001:db8:d960:91cf:216:3eff:fe4e:9642 (eth0) | CONTAINER       | 0         | micro1   |+------+---------+---------------------+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+----------+| u2   | RUNNING | 198.51.100.3 (eth0) | 2001:db8:d960:91cf:216:3eff:fe79:6765 (eth0) | CONTAINER       | 0         | micro3   |+------+---------+---------------------+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+----------+| u3   | RUNNING | 198.51.100.4 (eth0) | 2001:db8:d960:91cf:216:3eff:fe66:f24b (eth0) | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         | micro2   |+------+---------+---------------------+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+----------+
  2. Access the shell in u1:

    lxc exec u1 -- bash
    
  3. Ping the IPv4 address of u2:

    root@u1:~# ping 198.51.100.3
    PING 198.51.100.3 (198.51.100.3) 56(84) bytes of data.64 bytes from 198.51.100.3: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=1.33 ms64 bytes from 198.51.100.3: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=1.74 ms64 bytes from 198.51.100.3: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.985 ms^C--- 198.51.100.3 ping statistics ---3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2004msrtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.985/1.352/1.739/0.308 ms
  4. Ping the IPv6 address of u3:

    root@u1:~# ping6 -n 2001:db8:d960:91cf:216:3eff:fe66:f24b
    PING 2001:db8:d960:91cf:216:3eff:fe66:f24b(2001:db8:d960:91cf:216:3eff:fe66:f24b) 56 data bytes64 bytes from 2001:db8:d960:91cf:216:3eff:fe66:f24b: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=16.8 ms64 bytes from 2001:db8:d960:91cf:216:3eff:fe66:f24b: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=3.41 ms64 bytes from 2001:db8:d960:91cf:216:3eff:fe66:f24b: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=3.86 ms^C--- 2001:db8:d960:91cf:216:3eff:fe66:f24b ping statistics ---3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2004msrtt min/avg/max/mdev = 3.407/8.012/16.774/6.197 ms
  5. Confirm that the instance has connectivity to the outside world:

    root@u1:~# ping www.example.com
    PING www.example.com (93.184.216.34) 56(84) bytes of data.64 bytes from 93.184.216.34 (93.184.216.34): icmp_seq=1 ttl=49 time=111 ms64 bytes from 93.184.216.34 (93.184.216.34): icmp_seq=2 ttl=49 time=95.2 ms64 bytes from 93.184.216.34 (93.184.216.34): icmp_seq=3 ttl=49 time=96.2 ms^C--- www.example.com ping statistics ---3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2018msrtt min/avg/max/mdev = 95.233/100.870/111.165/7.290 ms
  6. Log out of the u1 shell:

    exit
    
  7. Create an OVN network with the default settings:

    lxc network create isolated --type=ovn
    

    There is only one UPLINK network, so the new network will use this one as its parent.

  8. Show information about the new network:

    root@micro1:~# lxc network show isolated
    config:  bridge.mtu: "1442"  ipv4.address: 198.51.100.201/24  ipv4.nat: "true"  ipv6.address: 2001:db8:452a:32b2::1/64  ipv6.nat: "true"  network: UPLINK  volatile.network.ipv4.address: 192.0.2.101  volatile.network.ipv6.address: 2001:db8:e647:610d:216:3eff:feef:6361description: ""name: isolatedtype: ovnused_by: []managed: truestatus: Createdlocations:- micro1- micro3- micro2- micro4
  9. Check that you can ping the volatile.network.ipv4.address:

    root@micro1:~# ping 192.0.2.101
    PING 192.0.2.101 (192.0.2.101) 56(84) bytes of data.64 bytes from 192.0.2.101: icmp_seq=1 ttl=253 time=1.25 ms64 bytes from 192.0.2.101: icmp_seq=2 ttl=253 time=1.04 ms64 bytes from 192.0.2.101: icmp_seq=3 ttl=253 time=1.68 ms^C--- 192.0.2.101 ping statistics ---3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2002msrtt min/avg/max/mdev = 1.042/1.321/1.676/0.264 ms
  10. Launch an Ubuntu container that uses the new network:

    lxc launch ubuntu:22.04 u4 --network isolated
    
  11. Access the shell in u4:

    lxc exec u4 -- bash
    
  12. Confirm that the instance has connectivity to the outside world:

    root@u4:~# ping www.example.com
    PING www.example.com (93.184.216.34) 56(84) bytes of data.64 bytes from 93.184.216.34 (93.184.216.34): icmp_seq=1 ttl=49 time=95.6 ms64 bytes from 93.184.216.34 (93.184.216.34): icmp_seq=2 ttl=49 time=118 ms64 bytes from 93.184.216.34 (93.184.216.34): icmp_seq=3 ttl=49 time=94.6 ms^C--- www.example.com ping statistics ---3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2004msrtt min/avg/max/mdev = 94.573/102.587/117.633/10.646 ms
  13. Ping the IPv4 address of u2:

    root@u4:~# ping 198.51.100.3
    PING 198.51.100.3 (198.51.100.3) 56(84) bytes of data.^C--- 198.51.100.3 ping statistics ---14 packets transmitted, 0 received, 100% packet loss, time 13301ms

    You will see that u2 is not reachable, because it is on a different OVN subnet.